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DSM-5 criteria for schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a severe and chronic mental disorder characterized by disturbances in thought, perception, and behavior. Schizophrenia involves a variety of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional symptoms, and it is often difficult to diagnose.

According to the Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM 5), schizophrenia has a lifetime prevalence ranging from between 0.3 and 0.7 percent. The psychotic features of the disorder generally emerge between the mid-teens and mid-thirties, with the height age of the first psychotic episode in the early to mid-twenties for men and late twenties for women.

Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

Two or more of the subsequent for a minimum of a one-month (or longer) period of your time, and a minimum of one among them must be 1, 2, or 3:

  • Delusions

  • Hallucinations

  • Disorganized speech

  • Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior

  • Negative symptoms, like the diminished emotional expression

  • Impairment is among the main areas of functioning for an extended period of your time since the onset of the disturbance, including work, interpersonal relations, or self-care.

  • Some symptoms of the disorder must last for a continuous period of a minimum of 6 months. During residual periods, only negative symptoms could also be present.

Schizoaffective disorder and bipolar or clinical depression with psychotic features are ruled out:

  • If mood episodes, whether depressive or manic, have occurred during active phase symptoms, they need to be present for a minority of the duration of the active and residual phases of the illness.

  • If there is a history of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or a communication disorder, the onset for which began in childhood, the diagnosis of schizophrenia is made if prominent delusions or hallucinations, in conjunction with other symptoms, are present for a minimum of one month.

  • Associated Features

  • The disturbance isn't caused by the consequences of a substance or another medical condition.

  • There are a variety of symptoms that contribute to a diagnosis of schizophrenia.

  • Inappropriate affect (laughing within the absence of a stimulus)

  • Anxiety and phobias

  • Disturbed sleep pattern

  • Lack of insight into the disorder

  • Dysphoric mood, including anger, depression, or anxiety